Chapter 23.


Love worketh no ill to his neighbor; therefore love is thefulfilling of the law. Romans 13:10.

In speaking from these words, I design,

I. To make some remarks on the nature of love. II. To showthat love is the whole of religion. III. Some things that arenot essential to perfect love. IV. Some things that are essential.V. Some of the effects of perfect love.

I. I am to make some remarks on the nature of love.

1. The first remark I have to make is, that there are variousforms under which love may exist.

The two principal forms, so far as religion is concerned, arebenevolence and complacency. Benevolence is an affection of themind, or an act of the will. It is willing good, or a desire topromote the happiness of its object. Complacency is esteem, orapprobation of the character of its object. Benevolence shouldbe exercised towards all beings, irrespective of their moral character.Complacency is due only to the good and holy.

2. Love may exist either as an affection or as an emotion.

When love is an affection, it is voluntary, or consists inthe act of the will. When it is an emotion, it is involuntary.What we call feelings, or emotions, are involuntary. They arenot directly dependent on the will, or controlled by a directact of will. The virtue of love is mostly when it is in the formof an affection. The happiness of love is mostly when it is inthe form of an emotion. If the affection of love be very strong,it produces a high degree of happiness, but the emotion of holylove is happiness itself.

I said that the emotion of love is involuntary. I do not meanthat the will has nothing to do with it, but that it is not theresult of a mere or direct act of the will. No man can exercisethe emotion of love by merely willing it. And the emotion mayoften exist in spite of the will. Individuals often feel emotionsrising in their minds, which they know to be improper, and tryby direct effort of will to banish them from their minds; andfinding that impossible, therefore conclude that they have nocontrol of these emotions. But they may always be controlled bythe will in an indirect way. The mind can bring up any class ofemotions it chooses, by directing the attention sufficiently tothe proper object. They will be certain to rise in proportionas the attention is fixed, provided the will is right in regardto the object of attention. So of those emotions which are improperor disagreeable; the mind may be rid of them, by turning the attentionentirely away from the object, and not suffering the thoughtsto dwell on it.

3. Ordinarily, the emotions of love towards God are experiencedwhen we exercise love towards him in the form of affection.

But this is not always the case. We may exercise good willtowards any object, and yet at times feel no sensible emotionsof love. It is not certain that even the Lord Jesus Christ exercisedlove towards God, in the form of emotion, at all times. So faras our acquaintance with the nature of the mind goes, we knowthat a person may exercise affection, and be guided and be governedby it, constantly, in all his actions, without any felt emotionof love towards its object at the time. Thus a husband and fathermay be engaged in laboring for the benefit of his family, andhis very life controlled by affection for them while his thoughtsare not so engaged upon them as to make him feel any sensibleemotions of love to them at the time.

The things about which he is engaged may take up his mind somuch, that he has scarcely a thought of them, and so he may haveno felt emotion towards them, and yet he is all the time guidedand governed by affection for them. Observe here, that I use theterm, affection, in the sense of President Edwards, as explainedby him in his celebrated Treatise on the Will. An affection inhis treatise is an act of the will or a volition.

4. Love to our neighbor naturally implies the existence oflove to God, and love to God naturally implies love to our neighbor.

The same is declared in the 8th verse, "Owe no man mything, but to love one another: for he that loveth another hathfulfilled the law. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thoushalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear falsewitness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment,it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shaltlove thy neighbor as thyself." Here it is taken for grantedthat love to our neighbor implies the existence of love to God,otherwise it could not be said that "he that loveth anotherhath fulfilled the law." The apostle James recognizes thesame principle, when he says, "If ye fulfill the royal lawaccording to the scripture, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself,ye do well." Here love to our neighbor is spoken of as constitutingobedience to the whole law. Benevolence, that is, good will toour neighbor, naturally implies love to God. It is love to thehappiness of being. So the love of complacency towards holy beingsnaturally implies love to God, as a being of infinite holiness.

II. I am to show that love is the whole of religion.

In other words, all that is required of man by God consistsin love, in various modifications and results. Love is the sumtotal of all.

1. The first proof I shall offer is, that the sentiment istaught in the text, and many other passages of scripture.

The scriptures fully teach, that love is the sum total of allthe requirements, both of the law and gospel. Our Savior declaresthat the great command, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God withall thy heart, soul, mind and strength, and thy neighbor as thyself,is the sum total of all the law and the prophets, or implies andincludes all that the whole scriptures, the law and the gospelrequire.

2. God is love, and to love is to be like God, and to be perfectin love is to be perfect as God is perfect.

All God's moral attributes consist in love, acting under certaincircumstances and for certain ends. God's justice in punishingthe wicked, his anger at sin, and the like, are only exercisesof his love to the general happiness of his kingdom. So it isin man. All that is good in man is some modification of love.Hatred to sin, is only love to virtue acting itself out in opposingwhatever is opposed to virtue. So true faith implies and includeslove, and faith which has no love in it, or that does not workby love, is no part of religion. The faith that belongs to religionis an affectionate confidence in God. There is a kind of faithin God, which has no love in it. The devil has that kind of faith.The convicted sinner has it. But there is no religion in it. Faithmight rise even to the faith of miracles, and yet if there isno love in it, it amounts to nothing. The apostle Paul, in the13th chapter of 1 Corinthians, says, "Though I have the giftof prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge;and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains,and have not charity, I am nothing."

Just so it is with repentance. The repentance that does notinclude love is not "repentance towards God." True repentanceimplies obedience to the law of love, and consequent oppositionto sin.

III. I will mention some things that are not essential to perfectlove.

1. The highest degree of emotion is not essential to perfectlove.

It is manifest that the Lord Jesus Christ very seldom had thehighest degree of emotion of love, and yet he always had perfectlove. He generally manifested very little emotion, or excitement.Excitement is always proportioned to the strength of the emotionsas it consists in them. The Savior seemed generally remarkablycalm. Sometimes his indignation was strong, or his grief for thehardness of men's hearts; and sometimes we read that he rejoicedin spirit. But he was commonly calm, and manifested no high degreeof emotion. And it is plainly not essential to perfect love, thatthe emotion of love should exist in a high degree.

2. Perfect love does not exclude the idea of increase in loveor growth in grace.

I suppose the growth of the mind in knowledge, to all eternity,naturally implies growth in love to all eternity. The Lord JesusChrist, in his human nature, grew in stature, and in favor withGod and man. Doubtless, as a child, he grew in knowledge, andas he grew in knowledge, he grew in love toward God, as well asin favor with God. His love was perfect when he was a child, butit was greater when he became a man. As a human being, he probablyalways continued to increase in love to God as long as he lived.From the nature of mind, we see that it may be so with all thesaints in glory, that their love will increase to all eternity,and yet it is always perfect love.

3. It is not essential to perfect love, that love should alwaysbe exercised towards all individuals alike.

We cannot think of all individuals at once. You cannot eventhink of every individual of your acquaintance at once. The degreeof love towards an individual depends on the fact that the individualis present to the thoughts.

4. It is not essential to perfect love, that there should bethe same degree of the spirit of prayer for every individual,or for the same individual at all times.

The spirit of prayer is not always essential to pure and perfectlove. The saints in heaven have pure and perfect love for allbeings, yet we know not that they have the spirit of prayer forany. You may love any individual with a very strong degree oflove, and yet not have the spirit of prayer for that individual.That is, the Spirit of God may not lead you to pray for the salvationof that individual. You do not pray for the wicked in hell. Thespirit of prayer depends on the influences of the Holy Ghost,leading the mind to pray for things agreeable to the will of God.You cannot pray in the Spirit, with the same clergy of fervorand faith, for all mankind. Jesus Christ said expressly, he didnot pray for all mankind: "I pray not for the world."Here has been a great mistake in regard to the spirit of prayer.

Some suppose that Christians have not done all their duty whenthey have not prayed in faith for every individual, as long asthere is a sinner on the earth. Then Jesus Christ never did allhis duty, for he never did this. God has never told us he willsave all mankind, and never gave us any reason to believe he willdo it. How then can we pray in faith for the salvation of all?What has that faith to rest on?

5. Perfect love is not inconsistent with those feelings oflanguor or constitutional debility, which are the necessary consequenceof exhaustion or ill health.

We are so constituted, that excitement naturally and necessarilyexhausts our powers. But love may be perfect, notwithstanding.Though one may feel more disposed to lie down and sleep than topray, yet his love may be perfect The Lord Jesus Christ oftenfelt this weariness and exhaustion, when the spirit was stillwilling, but the flesh was weak.

IV. What is essential to perfect love.

I. It implies that there is nothing in the mind inconsistentwith love.

No hatred, malice, wrath, envy, or any other malignant emotionsthat are inconsistent with pure and perfect love.

2. That there is nothing in the life inconsistent with love.

All the actions, words, and thoughts, continually under theentire and perfect control of love.

3. That the love to God is supreme.

The love to God is completely supreme, and so entirely aboveall other objects, that nothing else is loved in comparison withGod.

4. That love to God is disinterested.

God is loved for what he is; not for his relation to us, butfor the excellence of his character.

5. That love to our neighbor should be equal, i.e. that hisinterest and happiness should be regarded by us of equal valuewith our own, and he and his interests are to he treated accordinglyby us.

V. I am to mention some of the effects of perfect love.

1. One effect of perfect love to God and man will certainlybe, delight in self-denial for the sake of promoting the interestsof God's kingdom and the salvation of sinners.

See affectionate parents, how they delight in self-denial forthe sake of promoting the happiness of their children. There isa father; he gives himself up to exhausting labor, day by day,and from year to year, through the whole of a long life, risingearly, and eating the bread of carefulness continually, to promotethe welfare of his family. And he counts all this self-denialand toil not a grief or a burden, but a delight, because of thelove he bears to his family. See that mother; she wishes to educateher son at college, and now, instead of finding it painful itis a joy to her to sit up late and labor incessantly to help him.That is because she really loves her son. Such parents rejoicemore in conferring gifts on their children, than they would inenjoying the same things themselves. What parent does not enjoya piece of fruit more in giving it to his little child, than ineating it himself? The Lord Jesus Christ enjoyed more solid satisfactionin working out salvation for mankind than any of his saints canever enjoy in receiving favors at his hands. He testified thatit is more blessed to give than to receive. This was the joy setbefore him, for which he endured the cross and despised the shame.

His love was so great for mankind, that it constrained himto undertake this work, and sustained him triumphantly throughit. The apostle Paul did not count it a grief and a hardship tobe hunted from place to place, imprisoned, scourged, stoned, andcounted the offscouring of all things, for the sake of spreadingthe gospel and saving souls. It was his joy. The love of Christso constrained him, he had such a desire to do good, that it washis highest delight to lay himself on that altar as a sacrificeto the cause. Other individuals have had the same mind with theapostle. They have been known who would be willing to live a thousandyears, or to the end of time, if they could be employed in doinggood, in promoting the kingdom of God, and saving the souls ofmen, and willing to forego even sleep and food to benefit objectsthey so greatly love.

2. It delivers the soul from the power of legal motives

Perfect love leads a person to obey God, not because he fearsthe wrath of God, or hopes to be rewarded for doing this or that,but because he loves God and loves to do the will of God. Thereare two extremes on this subject. One class make virtue to consistin doing right, simply because it is right, without any referenceto the will of God, or an influence from God. Another class makesvirtue to consist in acting from love to the employment, but withoutreference to God's authority, as a Ruler and Law-giver. Both ofthese are in error. To do a thing simply because he thinks itright, and not out of love to God is not virtue. Neither is itvirtue to do a thing because he loves to do it, with no regardto God's will. A woman might do certain things because she knewit would please her husband, but if she did the same thing merelybecause she loved to do it, and with no regard to her husband,it would be no virtue as it respects her husband. If a personloves God, as soon as he knows what is God's will, he will doit because it is God's will. Perfect love will lead to universalobedience, to do God's will in all things, because it is the willof God.

3. The individual who exercises perfect love will be dead tothe world.

I mean by this that he will be cut loose from the influenceof worldly considerations. Perfect love will so annihilate selfishness,that he will have no will but the will of God, and no interestbut God's glory. He will not be influenced by public sentiment,or what this and that man will say or think. See that woman! whatis she not willing to do from natural affection to her husband?She is willing to cut loose from all her friends, as much as ifshe was dead to them, and not pay the least regard to what theysay, and leave all the riches, and honors, and delights they canoffer, to join the individual whom she loves, and live with himin poverty, in disgrace, and in exile. Her affection is so greatthat she does it joyfully, and is ready to go from a palace toany cottage or cave in earth, and be perfectly happy. And allthat her friends can say against the man of her affection hasnot the least influence on her mind, only to make her cling themore closely to him. This one all-absorbing affection has actuallykilled all the influences that used to act on her. To attemptto influence her by such things is in vain. There is only oneavenue of approach to her mind only one class of motives moveher, and that is through the object of her affection.

So far as the philosophy of mind is concerned, the perfectlove of God operates in the same way. The mind that is filledwith perfect love, it is impossible to divert from God, whilelove continues in exercise. Take away his worldly possessions,his friends, his good name, his children, send him to prison,beat him with stripes, bind him to the stake, fill his flesh fullof pine knots and set them on fire; and then leave him his Godand he is happy. His strong affection can make him insensibleto all things else. He is as if he were dead to all the worldbut his God. Cases have been known of martyrs who, while theirbodies were frying at the stake, were so perfectly happy in God,as to lose their sense of pain.

Put such a one in hell, in the lake of fire and brimstone,and as long as he enjoys God, and the love of God fills his soul,he is happy.

Who has not witnessed or heard of cases of affection, approachingin degree to what I have described, where a person is in factdead to all other things, and lives only for the loved object.How often do you see fond parents, who live for an only child,and when that child dies, wish themselves dead. Sometimes a husbandand wife have such an absorbing affection for each other, thatthey live for nothing else; and if the husband dies, the wifepines away and dies also. The soul-absorbing object for whichshe lived is gone, and why should she live any longer? So, whenan individual is filled with the perfect love of God, he wishesto live only to love and serve God; he is dead to the world, deadto his own reputation, and has no desire to live for any otherreason, here, or in heaven, or any where else in the universe,but to glorify God. He is willing to live, here or any where else,and suffer and labor a thousand years, or to all eternity, ifit will glorify God.

I recollect hearing a friend say, often, "I don't knowthat I have one thought of living a single moment for any otherpurpose than to glorify God, any more than I should think of leapingright into hell." This was said soberly and deliberately,and the whole life of that individual corresponded with the declaration.He was intelligent, sober-minded, and honest, and I have no doubtexpressed what had been the fullest conviction of his mind foryears. What was this but perfect love? What more does any angelin heaven do than this? His love may be greater in degree, becausehis strength is greater. But the highest angel could not lovemore perfectly, than to be able to say in sincerity, "I shouldas soon think of leaping into hell as of living one moment forany other object but to glorify God." What could Jesus Christhimself say more than that?

4. It is hardly necessary to say that perfect joy and peaceare the natural results of perfect love.

But I wish to turn your attention here to what the apostlesays in the 13th chapter of 1 Corinthians, speaking of charity,or love.You will observe that the word here translated "charity"is the same that is in other places rendered love. It means love."Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, andhave not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinklingcymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understandall mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faithso that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing."He might have even the faith of miracles, so strong that he couldmove mountains from their everlasting foundations, and yet haveno love. "And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor,and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity,it profiteth me nothing." You see how far he supposes a manmay go without love. "Charity suffereth long." Long-sufferingis meekness under opposition or injury. This is one of the effectsof love, to bear great provocations, and not retaliate or revileagain. Love is kind, or affectionate in all intercourse with others,never harsh or rude, or needlessly giving pain to any.

Love envieth not, never dislikes others because they are morethought of or noticed, more honored or useful, or make greaterattainments in knowledge, happiness or piety. Is not puffed upwith pride, but always humble and modest. Doth not behave itselfunseemly, but naturally begets a pleasant and courteous deportmenttowards all. However unacquainted the individual may be with theways of society, who is actuated by perfect love, he always appearswell, it is natural to him to be so kind and gentle and courteous.Seeketh not her own, or has no selfishness. Is not easily provoked.This is always the effect of love. See that mother, how long shebears with her children, because she loves them.

If you see an individual that is testy, or crusty, easily flyinginto a passion when anything goes wrong he is by no means perfectin love, if he has any love. To be easily provoked is always asign of pride. If a person is full of love, it is impossible tomake him exercise sinful anger while love continues. He exercisessuch indignation as God exercises, and as holy angels feel, atwhat is base and wrong, but he will not be provoked by it. Thinkethno evil. Show me a man that is always suspicious of the motivesof others, and forever putting the worst construction on the wordsand actions of his fellow men, and I will show you one who hasthe devil in him, not the Holy Ghost. He has that in his own mindwhich makes him think evil of others. If an individual is honestand simple-hearted himself, he will be the last, to think evilof others. He will not be always smelling heresy or mischief inothers. On the contrary, such persons are often liable to be imposedon by designing men, not from any want of good sense, but fromthe effect of love. They do not suspect evil, where the exteriorappears fair, nor without the strongest proof.

Love rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth.See a man who exults at his neighbor's fall, or cries out, I toldyou so; and I tell you, that man is far enough from being perfectin love. Beareth all things, all provocations and injuries, withoutrevenge, Believeth all things, instead of being hard to be convincedof what is in favor of others, is always ready to believe goodwherever there is the least evidence of it. Hopeth all things;even where there is reason to suspect evil, as long as there isroom for hope, by putting the best construction upon the thingwhich it will bear. Where you see an individual that has not thisSpirit, rest assured, he is by no means sincerely in love. Nay,he has no love at all.

I might pursue this course of thought farther, but have nottime. Love worketh no ill to his neighbor. Mark that, no ill!Perfect love never overreaches, nor defrauds, nor oppresses, nordoes any ill to a neighbor. Would a man under the influence ofperfect love, sell his neighbor rum? Never. Would a man that lovedGod with all his heart, perfectly, hold his neighbor as a slave?Love worketh no ill to his neighbor; slavery denies him the wagesthat he has earned, and perhaps sells him, and tears him awayfrom his family, deprives him of the Bible, and endeavors as faras possible to make him a brute. There cannot be greater falsehoodand hypocrisy, than for a man who will do that, to pretend thathe loves God, now that light is shed upon this subject, and theattention of men turned upon it. Will a man hate his own flesh?How can he love God that hates or injures his neighbor?

I designed to remark on one other effect of perfect love. Ituniformly shows itself in great efforts for the sanctificationof the church and the salvation of souls. Where a person is negligentor deficient in either of these, he is by no means perfect inlove, whatever may be his pretensions.


I. You see why it is true, what the apostle James says, "Ifany man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue,butdeceiveth his own heart, this man's religion is vain." Theman that professes to be religious, and yet allows himself tospeak against his neighbor with an unbridled tongue, to injurehis neighbor, deceives himself, if he thinks he loves his neighboras himself. Strange love!

II. There may be much light in the mind concerning religion,without love.

You often see individuals, who understand a great deal, intellectually,about religion, and can spread it out before others, while itis plain they are not actuated by the spirit of love. They havenot the law of kindness on their lips.

III. Those individuals who have much religious knowledge andzeal, without love, are most unlovely and dangerous persons.

They are always censorious, proud, heady, high-minded. Theymay make a strong impression, but do not produce true religion.They zealously affect you, but not well.

IV. The drift of a man's zeal will determine the characterof his religion.

It will show whether the light in his mind is accompanied withlove. If it is, his zeal will not be sectarian in its character.Show me a man full of jealously towards all that do not belongto his sect or party, and there is a man far enough from perfectlove.

True love in never denunciatory or harsh. If it has occasionto speak of the faults of others, it does it in kindness, andwith sorrow. Perfect love cannot speak in a rough or abusive manner,either to or of others. It will not lay great stress on the merecircumstantials of religion, nor be sticklish for particular measuresor forms. Many will contend fiercely either for or against certainthings, as for or against new measures; but if they were fullof love they would not do it. The zeal that is governed by perfectlove will not spend itself in contending for or against any formsin religion, nor attack minor errors and evils. Love leads tolaying stress on the fundamentals in religion. It cleaves to warm-heartedChristians, no matter of what denomination they may be, and lovesthem, and delights to associate with them.

This zeal is never disputatious, or full of controversy. Finda man who loves to attend ecclesiastical meetings, and entersinto all the janglings of the day, and that man is not full oflove. To a mind filled with holy love, it is exceedingly painfulto go to such meetings, and see ministers dividing into parties,and maneuvering, and caucussing, and pettifogging, and strivingfor the mastery. Find an individual who loves controversy in thenewspapers, he is not full of love. If he was, he would ratherbe abused, and reviled, and slandered, either in person or bythe papers, than turn aside to defend himself or to reply. Hewould never return railing for railing, but contrariwise blessing.And as much as possible, he would live peaceably with all men.

V. How much that is called religion has no love.

How much of what passes for works of religion, is constrainedby outward causes and influences, and not by the inward powerof love. It ought to be better understood than it is, that unlesslove is the mainspring, no matter what the outward action maybe, whether praying, praising, giving, or anything else, thereis no religion in it.

How much excitement that passes for religion, has no love.How much zeal has no religion in it. See that man always fullof bitter zeal, and if reproved for it, flying to the exampleof Paul, when he said, "Thou child of the devil." Ifhe was under the influence of perfect love, he would see thathis circumstances are so different as not to justify the exerciseof such a spirit.

VI. Those religious excitements which do not consist in thespirit of love, are not revivals of religion.

Perhaps the church may be much excited, and bustle about witha great show of zeal, and boisterous noise, but no tendernessof spirit. Perhaps, those who go about may show a spirit of insolence,and rudeness, and pick a quarrel with every family they visit.I once knew a young man who acknowledged that he aimed at makingpeople angry, and the reason he assigned was, that it often broughtthem under conviction, and so issued in conversion. And so itmight if he should go in and utter horrid blasphemies in theirpresence, until they were frightened into a consideration of theirown character. But who would defend such a conduct on the groundthat such was now and then the result? And if this be the characterof the excitement, it may be a revival of wrath, and malice, andall uncharitableness, but it is not a revival of religion. I donot mean that when some or many are filled with wrath, it is certainproof that there is no revival of religion; but that when theexcitement has this prevailing character, it is not a true revivalof religion. Some among them may have the spirit of love, butcertainly those who are filled with a bitter disputatious zealare not truly religious. Religion may be in some persons revived,but in the main, in such cases, it is a revival of irreligion.

VII. When persons profess to be converted, if love is not theruling feature in their character they are not truly converted.

However well they may appear in other respects, no matter howclear their views, or how deep their feelings, if they have notthe spirit of love to God, and love to man, they are deceived.Let no such converts be trusted.

VIII. See what the world will be, when mankind are universallyactuated by a spirit of love.

We learn that the time will come, when there shall be nothingto hurt or destroy, and when the spirit of love will universallyprevail. What a change in society! What a change in all the methodsof doing business, and in all the intercourse of mankind, wheneach shall love his neighbor as himself, and seek the good ofothers as his own. Could one of the saints of the present dayrevisit the earth at that period, he would not know the worldin which he had lived, all things would be so altered. Is it possible,he would exclaim, "that this is the earth; the same earththat used to be so full of jailing, and oppression, and fraud?"

IX. The thing on which the Lord Jesus Christ is bent, is tobring all mankind under the influence of love.

Is it not a worthy object? He came to destroy the works ofthe devil; and this is the way to do it. Suppose the world wasfull of such men as Jesus Christ was in his human nature compareit with what it is now. Would not such a change be worthy of theSon of God? What a glorious end, to fill the earth with love.

X. It is easy to see what makes heaven.

It is love perfect love. And it is easy to see what makes heavenbegun on earth, in those who are full of love. How sweet theirtemper; what delightful companions; how blessed to live near them:so full of candor, so kind, so gentle, so careful to avoid offense,so divinely amiable in all things!

And is this to be attained by men? Can we love God, in thisworld with all the heart, and soul, and strength, and mind? Isit our privilege and our duty to possess the Spirit of Christand shall we exhibit the spirit of the devil? Beloved, let ourhearts be set on perfect love, and let us give God no rest tillwe feel our hearts full of love, and till all our thoughts andall our lives are full of love to God and love to man. O, whenwill the church come up to this ground? Only let the church befull of love, and she will be fair as the moon, clear as the sun,and terrible to all wickedness, in high places and low places,as an army with banners.

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